Linton has proposed that all elements of culture can be classified into three principal categories.
- A) The universal
B) The specialties
C) The alternatives
- A) The Universals
The universals comprise those values, beliefs and customs that are generally held by the entire adults population. For example, in a wide variety of generally, behaviour in such areas as language, food, religion and economics substances rather circumscribed in our society.
- B) The Specialties
The second category identified by Linton, includes-those elements of the culture to be found only within subgroups of the society. Among the most common of these are the vocational subgroups; in our society certain behaviour is expected of professors, for example, that be quite different from those expected of businessmen. Thus, professors are expected to be shabbily dressed: thinker leftist a their politics, absentminded, and impractical in worldly affairs; businessmen, a contrast, tend to be viewed as smartly dressed doers, conservative in their polities mentally alert, well organized, efficient, and practical.
- C) The Alternatives
The alternatives are those beliefs and practices that Violate culturally accepted norms (universals and specialties) in their attempt to fulfill a need, solve are like specialties, however, all members of the society may not share them on like specialties however, any sub-group may not share them. A simple, tangible example of an alternative might be the introduction of pizza in place of the food as an afternoon (lunch) or dinner.
It is hardly surprising that society and culture exert enormous influences on the formation of the school curriculum or indeed any curriculum. After all as it was society that devised schooling to ensure the survival of the cultural heritage, we would expect to see an extensive influence of society and culture upon curriculum in schools.
Curriculum developers serve the function of translating traditional assumptions, ideas values, knowledge and attitudes into curriculum objectives, content, learning activities and evaluation. Of these curriculum elements, sociological sources have their greatest impact on content. In acting this way, curriculum developers both transmit and reflect the culture of which they are part. Thus it is not possible to talk about a culture-free curriculum. Rather, one should consider a curriculum as a situation where judgments are made as to what aspects of culture are to be included and why.
Consequently, when developers devise curricula the cultural background of those developers will become evident in the content they select, the methods they include, the objectives they set and so forth.
Influences of Society and Culture on Curriculum
The societal and cultural influences that affect curriculum developers are evident in both conscious and unconscious ways and their impact certainly profound. Australian education manifest through the curriculum, reflect culture, and that reflection is a result of being an integral part of that society and above ways. In this sense the curriculum than leads society to change.
Indirectly society and culture influence curriculum developers simply because they are members of a particular society. Cultural values, attitudes and beliefs are acquired by individuals unaware of that process.