Some people chew the tobacco while other use it in cigarettes. Tobacco smoke consists of many chemical substances. Nicotine tar and carbon monoxide are the most important chemical substances. Nicotine is a very poisonous chemical compound which causes addiction and which makes difficult to quit smoking in the smokers. Another most important effect of nicotine on the human body is that it causes the narrowing of the blood vessels which hinders the blood supply to all the organs of the body.
Tar is a gelatinous material which collects around the lung tissues and the function of the lung is affected. Tar also causes lung cancer.Carbon monoxide present in the cigarette smoke combines with the hemoglobin of the blood and reduces the oxygen content of the blood. Because all the tissues of the body require oxygen for their proper function, just to compensate the low oxygen supply, the heart has to work more, which causes more burdens on the cardiac muscles. These are some of the reasons, that smokers have more incidences of heart diseases than the non-smokers.
Man is making progress in industries. The population of the world is also increasing at a rapid pace. Along with the human activities, the amount of smoke is also increasing in the atmosphere, industrial and domestic. The smoke consists of carbon monoxide, chlorofluorocarbon, (CFC’s) oxides of nitrogen and sulphur.
This smoke collects below the ozone layer and by increasing its thickness. It causes rise in temperature of atmosphere of earth and that changes the climate. Sometime these gases in smoke start eating ozone and produce holes in ozone layer. These holes in ozone layer cause genetic mutations in the man, plants and animals. It also increases the incidence of skin cancers in the humans.
Respiratory Diseases due to Smoking
Cigarette smoke causes the inflammation of the bronchi, bronchioles and the lungs which is the main reason of cough and sputum. The inflammation of the wind pipe (trachea) and bronchi is called bronchitis. The smoking damages the air sacs in the lungs. This reduces the oxygen exchange in the blood. The patient has to breathe faster to compensate this if causing damage to him. This disease is called emphysema.
Heart Diseases due to Smoking
Smoking predisposes to heart attacks, hypertension and other heart ailments which are the main cause of death in smokers. The blood vessels including arteries and arterioles become narrow and especially the coronary arteries of the heart are more affected. This increases the heart attack chances more.
Skin Diseases Caused by Smoking
Most common skin disease is skin allergy. The skin colour also changes because of low oxygen content in the blood. The skin wrinkles and aging symptoms begin to appear.
Psychosis and neurosis are the important menial diseases. The detailed description of these ailments is as under.
Delirium and depression are common diseases of psychosis.
This disease appears acutely and is caused by addiction of certain diseases, electrolyte imbalance in the body and oxygen deficiency. The main signs and symptoms of the disease are incoherent speech, fits, rapid movements of the eyes, double vision. In somnia, anxiety, stupor, sightedness, and fear from people. There should be counseling to patients that they should trust on other people.
In neurosis hysteria and phobia are noteworthy.
The females are more prone to this disease. During the hysterical fit a patient may experience blindness, deafness, headache, ringing in the ears, stammering, paralysis, and fits etc. The patient may refuse to eat due to loss of appetite. The patient should be counseled for longer periods and encouraged to talk more about his problems. Try to solve his/her problems otherwise the same attack may recur.
In this disease the patient feels undue fear from any place or person or things like bus, open space etc. The patient starts avoiding from that place or thing. Consult the doctor for his treatment.