Tetanus is an acute disease. Their germs remain alive in the dust, faces of the man and animals. If a person is injured in a roadside accident, these germs enter the wound and produce toxins. There is also the danger of tetanus if an animal like a cat, dog, etc. bites a person.
All the body muscles become stiff and remain stiff during the whole course of the disease and then severe jerking movements occur in the muscles. This causes severe pain to the patient. The stiffness of the mouth muscles causes the closing of the mouth, which is called lock-jaw. There is a difficulty in swallowing food. Later on, muscles of the neck become stiff. There are severe fits and if the patient is touched the muscles again go into spasm as in fits. Tetanus injection should be given if a person gets the injury.
Typhoid is endemic in all the countries of the world. In the developed countries of the world by better civic conditions and better quality of food, water, and milk, the incidence of this disease is reduced to a great extent. These germs remain alive in the human body. The patient or the carriers of typhoid excrete the bacteria in their faces. When these bacteria mix with food, water, milk, etc., is transmitted through a man or fly than any person consuming these items may also ingest these germs which cause typhoid fever in that person. This disease is manifested by a headache and fever of long duration. Usually, typhoid fever is common in 10-30 years of age group and more in the rainy season and flies are important for its spread. Typhoid fever may occur by drinking the polluted water or by taking contaminated food.
Some preventive measures of typhoid are to drink boiled cool water, thorough washing of fruits and vegetables in plenty of clean water, cover milk, and milk products. Do not eat stale food, avoid from ice creams and ice balls. Screen the houses and shops from the flies. Protect all age groups by vaccination as one injection may protect for 3 years.
This disease is characterized by watery stools. The severity of this disease may range from minor ailment to very severe condition in which watery stools abruptly start. It may accompany vomiting, which may produce dehydration in the body. The urine is scanty. The muscles start aching due to loss of salts from the body. About 30% to 40% patient of cholera dies if not treated in time. Polluted water, food, and milk are the main sources of spread of disease. The direct contact of the patient with a healthy person is also one of the reasons for the spread of these diseases. Always drink clean water, eat clean fresh food, do not eat stale fruits. Wash your hands with soap before eating. Protect milk and milk products from flies and cover the food articles.
Fungal infection can attack any part of the body skin.
Ringworm usually appears in round circles on the skins, accompanied by itching. Ringworm of head may cause falling of hair in patches. The nail fungus may damage the nails.Ringworm is a contagious disease. The affected person should not have direct contact with
a healthy person. In preventive measures do not use others combs and towels. The patient should be treated promptly. The affected areas should be washed with water and soap daily. The lesion should be kept dry. The socks should be washed properly.