Development as a process of orderly, cumulative, directional and age related behavioral changes occurs simultaneously in a coordinator system of (1) physical, (2) Psychological, (3) Cognitive, (4) Linguistic, (5) Socio-emotional and (6) Sensory Perceptual Development. All of the aspects integrate with each other. The details are given in the following:
An individual’s psyche (self) in the form of materialistic physical structure starts in the form of fertilized egg called “Zygote” a result of unification of male sperm and female ova (egg) with the transmission of onto parental genes. The development of individual complexes in two phases Prenatal and Postnatal.
- Prenatal Development lasts from gestation period up to the delivery of a neonate is consisting of three stages:
(i) Germinal period of two weeks for the Zygote to attach itself with uterine wall by passing through the fallopian tube.
(ii) Embryonic period 3 to 8th week developmental duration of cells and muscles.
(iii) Fetal period, 9th week to the 36 I forty weeks at the maximum for attaining maturity to take birth as a neonate.
- Postnatal Development: After birth starts the postnatal period of development in the following eight phases and stages of life:
Physical Development during Neonatal Period:
A newly born baby from birth to two weeks is called a neonate. He is with freckled skin and closed eyelids, head-size 1/4th of whole body covered with the amniotic fluid, and bluish-red in colour / complexion.
A neonate’s sensory growth: A neonate body reacts to sound and light. Neonates are nearsighted and can focus best at the objects about 9 inches in front of them (Blanks and Salapatek, 1983) and even to tickling Infact.
Physical Development in Early Childhood:
Early childhood period is from 1 ½ or 2 years’ age to 5/6 years. It is the preschool or pregang stage. The child undergoes the following changes in his physical development:
(i) Child’s physical growth rate is slower than that of infancy growth rate.
(ii) The average height rate up to preschool period increases by 3 inches per year.
(iii) The annual increase in weight is 3 to 5 pounds and becomes seven times more in the 6th year.
(iv) Body structure changes.
(v) Arms and legs grow longer and hands-feet are larger.
(vi) The body structure develops into ectomorphic (fat) / endomorphic (thin and long at eel) / mesomorphic (muscular).
(vii) The child gets 24 temporary teeth complete by the 2½ year and the permanent teeth cutting starts with the decay of temporary teeth by the 6th year.
Physical Development in Middle and Late Childhood:
The middle and late childhood period lasts approximately 6 to 11 years or to the start of adolescence. The physical structural developmental changes occur as the following in body growth and proportion:
(i) The rate of growth is slow, calm and consistent.
(ii) Annual height on the average increase 2 to 3 inches and a girl by the age of 11 is about 4 feet and l0 1/4 inches that while a boy is about 4 feet and 9 inches.
(iii) Annual weight gain on the average is 5 to 7 pounds with the increase in skeletal and muscular systems of the body organs.
(iv) Muscle mass and strength increases gradually as “the baby fat” decreases with improvement of the muscle tones resulting from heredity and exercise.
(v) The boys are stronger than girls.
(vi) According to Hockenberry, (2005), head, and waist circumference and leg length decrease is seen in relation to body height.
(vii) Body organs become symmetrical.
(viii) 28 out of 32 permanent teeth are completed in mouth.
(ix) Sexual organic differences in the girls and boys begin to appear by the end of late childhood.
(x) Bones continue to ossify but yield to pressure more and pull more than mature bones.