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All countries
548,935,393
Confirmed
Updated on June 27, 2022 1:19 am
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Updated on June 27, 2022 1:19 am
All countries
520,730,887
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Updated on June 27, 2022 1:19 am
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6,350,765
Deaths
Updated on June 27, 2022 1:19 am

What can Russia do in HiTech? Analyzing the White Paper, Part 2

Last time we started an inventory of Russian achievements in the field of HiTech. In addition to the directions described , five more are actively developing in Russia. Success in these areas will determine whether we will have advantages in the global technology race or whether we will be satisfied with the ready-made results of the leaders. And that’s what we mean.

Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT)
In simple words, TPP is the most secure and reliable way to store data due to the distribution of information in different places (decentralization). For example, your passport series is stored in one place, the number in another, and the last name in a third. If an attacker hacks into one of these places, he will only recognize some 4 numbers or a last name, and this will not be enough to use your data for fraudulent purposes.

The decentralized internet, or Web 3.0, includes technologies for developing decentralized web applications in which users have full control over the personal information provided. Blockchain is used to confirm the authenticity, and distributed registries are used to store data. You can learn more about blockchain technology in this article .

In Russia, interest in DLT has been growing since 2017, when there was a surge in the popularity of cryptocurrencies. Since then, a number of pilot projects have been launched to develop DLT-based solutions.

Key indicators of publication and patent activity

DRR implementation projects are being implemented by financial institutions and companies in the real sector of the economy. The National Settlement Depository is introducing blockchain into the financial infrastructure for conducting securities transactions and maintaining documentation. Sberbank is implementing a project to transfer all banking settlements to the blockchain (projects for mortgage lending, factoring, insurance and letters of credit).

Norilsk Nickel has implemented a DLT-based solution to facilitate commodity trading. The company issues tokens backed by palladium, cobalt and copper and sells them to manufacturers. In addition, records of minerals are kept on the blockchain.
S7 Airlines sells tickets through the blockchain platform and interacts with leading banks.
Vladimir Chemical Plant is creating a blockchain platform for fixing greenhouse gas emissions.
The Federal Tax Service has launched a blockchain platform for issuing interest-free loans to small and medium-sized businesses, to which more than 4,200 organizations have already connected.
For the first time in Russia, DOM.RF Bank, together with Rosreestr, issued an electronic mortgage instead of a documentary (paper) mortgage on an existing mortgage loan (previously, such solutions were used only for new mortgage loans).
Power transmission technologies and distributed intelligent power systems
The energy transition is one of the central issues on today’s global economic agenda. And the modern electric power industry is a complex set of many interconnected solutions at the junction of various fields of science and technology.

According to forecasts, in the medium and long term, electric transport will become widespread, and the necessary infrastructure is already being gradually built up, including in Russia. These factors stimulate the development of decentralized energy systems. Under these conditions, the development of the electric power industry is determined by the growing requirements for the reliability of power supply, lower electricity prices, the need to build smart grids and automate the control of technological processes along the entire chain “generation – distribution – transmission – marketing – consumption”. In the electric power industry, new models of interaction between producers and consumers of electricity are emerging, going far beyond the traditional way of life, in which there is isolation and even some opposition of their interests and roles.

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The structure of the high-tech direction

The development of electricity transmission technologies and distributed intelligent energy systems is one of the state priorities, which is reflected in the Energy Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2035.

Key indicators of publication and patent activity

On the Russian market, a number of companies have scientific and production potential, the scientific and production potential in the Russian Federation is enough to supply both the domestic market and trade abroad with components for infrastructure and basic products.

Rosseti, RusHydro, Rosatom, JSC “SO UES” and other industry companies with state participation finance a set of research and development in this area. Such areas as energy storage systems, intelligent electricity metering systems, automated process control systems, relay protection of substations, remote monitoring and diagnostic systems, and many others are actively developing.

Technologies for creating energy storage systems, including portable ones
Electricity storage systems are modern electric power devices with the function of multiple accumulation of electric energy, capable of consuming and releasing energy. Real life example: a portable external battery for a phone that we take with us on trips or where there is no way to charge a smartphone from a wall outlet. Now such batteries are needed for electric vehicles , including scooters and gyro scooters.

Another problem that this direction solves is the accumulation of excessively generated energy during peak hours and consumption at times when there is no production. For example, a solar panel generates energy during the day, but the consumer needs very little of it, then the excess energy is stored in the battery and consumed at night or on insufficiently sunny days.

The structure of the high-tech direction

In recent years, development in this area has been determined by Russia’s national plans for the transition to environmentally neutral electric vehicles.

Installations based on batteries and hydrogen fuel cells technologically complement each other. It is assumed that batteries will be optimal for urban passenger transport, and hybrid installations based on batteries and hydrogen fuel cells will be used for long-haul trucks and special equipment.

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In Russia, the development of electrochemical generators with fuel cells (hydrogen technologies) and flow batteries with vanadium electrolyte is underway, the creation of the production of permanent and backup power supply systems based on electrochemical generators has been initiated. For this, a concept was adopted for the development of the production and use of electric road transport for the period up to 2030 and a roadmap for its implementation for the period up to 2024, which provide for measures to develop electric transport with traction batteries and fuel cells, as well as charging and hydrogen refueling infrastructure .

Key indicators of publication and patent activity

To test the use of hydrogen technologies in 2022, the International Arctic Station “Sne

Zhinka is a year-round and completely autonomous complex, created on the basis of renewable energy sources and hydrogen energy.

Technologies of new materials and substances
To implement new generation technologies, new materials with new properties and characteristics are also needed – supermaterials. Supermaterials are ultralight and superhard materials with “memory effect” and programmable properties that meet or exceed modern requirements. The most dynamic and in demand for use in various sectors of the economy include:

Additive technologies – in fact, this is the printing of materials and products from these materials on a 3D printer. In Russia, the market for 3D printing equipment and services has grown many times over the past few years, reaching 4.5 billion rubles, and continues to grow.

Polymer Composite Materials (PCM) – connection/interlacing of several types of material to reduce the weight of the product and improve its characteristics. The most striking examples of the use of PCM are the aircraft industry, Airbus A350 consists of PCM by 53%, Boeing 787 – 50%, Bombardier C-Series – 46%;\.

Rare and rare earth metals (RM and REM) and lithium (batteries for electric vehicles). Here we are talking about the production of RM and RMZ, since Russia has significant reserves of rare-earth metals (about 17% of world reserves) and is in second place in the world after China in terms of the volume of raw materials. However, in terms of production, our country occupies only 7th place.

Key indicators of publication and patent activity

In Russia, the volume of costs for research and development in the field of technologies of new materials and substances increased by 76% in the period from 2016 to 2020. By 2030, a tenfold increase is expected in some areas.

Market size in Russia by technology groups until 2030, million USD

In Russia, it is planned to create infrastructure within the framework of the Composite Valley Innovation Science and Technology Center. The center will become a base for companies and scientists engaged in research in the field of multifunctional materials, certification and development of prototypes of unique products for their further production, assistance in obtaining funding and attracting investments. The start of the center is scheduled for 2023.

In addition, programs have been adopted to stimulate demand for composite materials and a number of programs that provide access to state support in the field of composite materials, rare and rare earth metals.

Advanced Space Systems (PCS)
Telecommunication and geoinformation space systems make it possible to implement many different services that are widely in demand in all sectors of the economy. Satellite communications, GLONASS navigation, digital broadcasting, high-speed Internet access, satellite Internet of Things throughout the Russian Federation (in the future), satellite imagery of the Earth.

The demand for modern PCS is also increasing due to the ubiquity of new types of digital services in the regions, as unmanned vehicles and robotic systems are widely introduced, including for logistics operations. Against the backdrop of environmental challenges, the need to monitor the state of hazardous facilities, greenhouse gas emissions, and the development of emergency situations is significantly increasing. Space data can be used for monitoring, security, scientific research and a wide range of other purposes. Domestic solutions do not fully meet the needs of the digital economy and are increasingly outperformed by foreign proposals.

The main trends in the development of the industry for the near future are launch vehicles with reusable first stages and miniature spacecraft (SC), which make it possible to significantly reduce the processing time for a survey request, increase the efficiency of information delivery, and provide online access to it.

Key indicators of publication and patent activity

The development of PCS in Russia is carried out as part of the implementation of the federal project “Integrated development of space information technologies for 2022-2030” of the state program “Space activities of Russia”. Activities for the development of promising space systems are provided for by the Innovative Development Program of Roscosmos for the period 2019-2025.

Today, the highest level of readiness in Russia is characterized by traditional satellite technologies, which are gradually being replaced by more advanced ones. The pace of their development largely depends on the readiness of the industry for their full-scale deployment, as well as investments in the accompanying scientific and production infrastructure. All technologies for the production of new generation spacecraft are on the rise. Existing models of spacecraft are being improved, new types of spacecraft are being developed, and additive technologies are being introduced to produce various components of spacecraft. Modernization of various spacecraft systems (navigation, control, etc.) is carried out, among other things, thanks to the introduction of artificial intelligence. The development of technologies of this group pushes the growth of the segment of services for the operation and maintenance of spacecraft.

What is the result?
Each of the directions described above develops in synergy with each other, and achievements in one direction will entail the development of all other directions. For example, the Internet of Things requires databases, and this is already artificial intelligence.

Fast processing of AI databases and solving problems requires high-speed 5G Internet and quantum computers.
To keep all systems running 24/7, you need a continuous supply of electricity, including reserves in batteries.
Due to the huge need for electricity consumption, its cost must be reduced, which means switching to renewable energy sources and reducing the cost of technological processes.
To protect information, distributed ledger technologies and blockchain are needed.
To transfer secure data (for each of the points above), a quantum communications infrastructure is needed.
To implement all technologies in iron, there must be materials with which it is possible to do this (RM, REM, Lithium, PKS and AT).
Space systems already perform many important functions in the economy of our country; in the future, existing constellations of small spacecraft will be replaced by more modern small spacecraft and will give impetus to global digitalization in Russia.

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