It was a cold night, November 28, 1945. Fishermen in the coastal town of Pasni in Makran were enjoying a good night’s sleep. It was late afternoon, just a few hours before sunrise. A magnitude 8.1 earthquake on the Richter scale shook Pasni. The risk of a tsunami following an earthquake in coastal areas is shaking its head in search of prey like a dragon. After a few minutes, the drunken waves of the sea began to move towards the population like a scattering elephant. The 15-foot-high waves were entering this small fishing village on the beach. The town had a different sea view. Everything was in ruins and the “Mastani Rack” in the middle of the town was working on the defense.
Today, 75 years after the incident , a new generation has settled in the city and most people have forgotten about it. On the other hand, experts say that there is a risk of a tsunami in the region at any time after a terrible earthquake,which could cause widespread destruction.
When we began our search for the locals who witnessed the tsunami 75 years ago, there were a few people who said they had seen the tsunami with their own eyes. (Now these people are no more in this world.) However, the basic information that was gathered in this regard was compiled by the officers and personnel of the British navy involved in the Second World War, because at that time the British rule in Balochistan. Was away These fleets involved in World War II were present in the coastal areas of Makran.
According to Wikipedia, the tsunami killed 300 people in Gwadar, while the locals I spoke to said that a few people were killed in the tsunami in Pasni. The quake affected present-day Pakistan and Oman, the region is still reeling from the quake, and on February 8, 2017, a magnitude 6.0 earthquake shook the region .
At that time, the population of Pasni was very small and people had to take shelter on a nearby sand dune to save their lives. The same sand dunes were surveyed by the UNDP a few years ago and declared a safe area for tsunami protection. Explain how to reach a safe place to save your life after a tsunami. The locals call this sand dune “Mastani Rack” which stretches for 25 km.
Abdullah Usman from Gwadar was part of the UNDP project. When contacted, he said that the locals were provided information about tsunami prevention through community sessions while children in different schools of Gwadar district were also given information about it. In addition, drills in various coastal settlements taught people how to avoid tsunamis. Abdullah Usman added that the locals were also informed about the natural signs that appear before the tsunami, while in Gwadar, stairs were built on the tsunami-safe mountain “Koh Batil” so that in case of a tsunami, the locals People can easily reach a safe place. Under this project, Tsunami Early Warning System was installed in Gwadar and Pasni and connected to the satellite. Meanwhile, the satellite fee was also paid by UNDP. Current
According to the BBC, a new study has revealed that the southern coastal areas of Pakistan and Iran could potentially be hit by a major tsunami that could cause massive loss of life in view of the growing population in both countries. May cause According to a report published on the BBC Urdu website, in an article published in the research journal “Geophysical General International”, the experts drew these conclusions using techniques such as seismology, geodesy and geo-morphology in the region. Are However, some geologists and meteorologists in their claim that the tsunami in the event of a magnitude 8.1 to 8.5 earthquake in the Makran subdivision zone hit the coastal region of Makran, Iran and the coastal region of Oman. Will make
Remember that a 9 magnitude earthquake is 480 while a 9.5 magnitude earthquake is as strong as the explosion of 800 megaton atom bombs. This destructive force can also be estimated from the fact that the atomic bomb dropped by the United States on Nagasaki had an explosive power of only 20 kilotons, or 2 percent more than the one-megaton atomic bomb.
Scientific author Sadiqa Khan also says that the coastal areas of Pakistan are constantly affected by tsunamis. There is a risk of a tsunami after a strong earthquake which could lead to a major tragedy. He referred to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and subsequent tsunami , saying that the epicenter was at a 1,200 km long fault line.
According to experts, the western part of the Makran geological plate (Makran Trench) is in Iran. And if a magnitude 3.0 earthquake (magnitude 9.0 or greater) occurs in Iran, its devastating and catastrophic effects could wreak havoc in the coastal areas of Makran as well. Volcanoes are active throughout the belt.
When it comes to earthquakes in coastal areas, we have to keep in mind the areas that are close to the volcanoes. As is said about the coastal areas of Makran. Earlier, volcanoes were very active here, which led to a major earthquake 75 years ago. Although there have been mild tremors since then, according to experts, the coastal belt of Makran and Balochistan is a high alert area for earthquakes.
Since the Makran Trench is situated at the confluence of three plates (ie Indian, Eurasian and Arab plates), some unique geological phenomena of the world are found here. Boiling hot springs, hot mud and gas erupting mouths (Mud valcano) and islands appearing and disappearing into the sea are just a few examples of these phenomena.
According to geologists, the Arab and Eurasian plates are colliding head on, while the Indian and Arab plates are moving northwards, rubbing side by side. Due to such unique and bizarre collisions in these three plates , different types of geological miracles are being born in Makran .
Earthquake experts say that they are caused by the motion of continental plates (tectonic plates) which are in constant motion. The risk of more severe earthquakes is in places where two or more tectonic plates meet and put pressure on each other. In this regard, Sadiqa Khan says that all areas in Pakistan from Balochistan to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are considered as high alert zones for earthquakes where tectonic plates are very active.
Referring to the coastal areas, Sadiqa Khan says that if an earthquake of more than 6 magnitude occurs in the coastal areas, a tsunami alert is issued immediately, because the epicenter of earthquakes in these areas is usually deep in the sea. Is; And because the depth of the ocean floor has not been well-researched so far, a tsunami can wreak havoc on a strong earthquake in coastal areas.
To add weight, he cited the example of eastern Japan in March 2011 when a magnitude 9 earthquake and tsunami wreaked havoc there because the population was not far from the coast and the building codes for building codes. The quake, which had a maximum magnitude of 5, was reported.
There is one such subdivision zone in the Arabian Sea called the Makran Trench. Geologists from the University of Southampton in the UK and the Pacific Geosciences Center in Canada studied the Makran Trench for a month using state-of-the-art equipment. Dr. Gemma Smith, who led the team, wrote in his dissertation that there is a 350 km long area in Makran Trench where an 8.2 to 9.2 magnitude earthquake could occur in the future.
Experts have repeatedly warned that the coastal areas of Makran are on the tsunami hit list. There is a risk of a tsunami as a result of any major earthquake and any person has only 30 minutes to save himself from the tsunami while most of the population in the coastal areas of Makran is by the sea. In such an emergency, it will not be possible for them to move to tsunami-safe areas.
As mentioned above, a few years ago, the UNDP, in a tsunami awareness campaign project in the coastal areas of Makran, informed the local people about the precautionary measures to be taken against the tsunami. But over time, people forget about these things or don’t even believe the predictions of the institutions considering the tsunami as a natural disaster. Moreover, most of the people living in the coastal areas of Makran are not even aware of the fact that they are living in a tsunami hit zone and could be hit by terrible tsunami waves at any time. The most dangerous thing is that most people living a few meters from the coast are unaware of the precautionary measures to be taken against earthquakes and tsunamis.
In 2005, in collaboration with the United Nations, the Indian Ocean and surrounding countries established a tsunami forecasting system that uses seismographic stations in 25 coastal cities of the Indian Ocean to monitor earthquakes 24 hours a day. ۔
Countries connected to this system conduct an exercise called “Indian Ocean View” every two years , the main purpose of which is to expose the shortcomings of this system and try to find out how these countries can be affected by a catastrophic tsunami. Will be able to deal. In a similar exercise in 2014, issues such as the individual performance and cooperation of local agencies in the event of a mock tsunami caused by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake in two places, South Java, Indonesia and the coastal city of Gwadar, Pakistan. Was reviewed.
A computer simulation performed for this purpose showed that if a magnitude 9.0 earthquake were to occur near the Makran Trench in the Arabian Sea, the resulting tsunami could reach as high as 100 feet when it hits Gwadar and other coastal areas. Is. This will naturally spread to areas close to the epicenter, including Gwadar and Makran, as well as a large area of Balochistan’s coastline.
It is therefore important that residents in these areas be made aware of the potential danger in advance and given proper training on how to avoid tsunamis. And if possible, relocate the population closest to the coast.